Form and preparation of manuscripts
Structure of the contributions
The organization of Articles and Notes must follow the following structure:
Title. The title should be precise and concise. Choose very thoroughly all the words included in the title; their association with other words should be carefully checked. Due to the international access of the journal, authors have been advised to include relevant information about the geographical localization of the study in their titles, when it corresponds.
Authors. Indicate name and surname of all the authors in small letter, and the initials letters in capitals. The authors separated by commas. Order every address mentioning the necessary data; first the main institution (for example, university), afterwards, dependences inside it decreasingly arranged (for example, faculty, department, laboratory); next, indicate city and country of residence of the author. Use the format given by the following example:Name1 Surname1 a, Name2 Surname2 b*, Name3 Surname3 a,b
a University Uuu, Faculty Ffff, Department Dddd, City, Country.
*Mailing Author: b Institute Iiiii, Department Dddddd, Street name and number, City, Country, phone: 56-63-221056, firstname.lastname@example.org
Summary. Must include problem stating, the objective, methodological foundations, relevant results and conclusions, in a maximum of 250 words. Avoid long descriptions of methods and do not include bibliographical references or statistical significance levels.
Key words. Five words at most (two or three small phrases having three words at most) that clearly identify the topic of the work. The use of words not included in the title is suggested.
Introduction. Includes problem statement, topic importance, hypothesis if necessary, objectives, work scopes and limitations for its development, if they existed. A synthesis and interpretation of literature directly related with the title and objectives of the work will be carried out in this chapter.
Methods. Provides sufficient and concise information so that the problem or experiment could be reproduced or easily understood by scholars. Technical specifications and precedence of materials used should be clearly indicated, without describing trivial materials. Biotic organisms should be conveniently identified according to the international policies that correspond. The experimental procedures or data gathering and statistical methods, as well as computer programs must be clearly stated in Methods. If the method were not original, it should be bibliographically indicated. If it were original or modified, it should be conveniently described. Any case, the presentation of various methods will be chronological.
Results. Includes a synthetic, ordered and elaborate presentation of the information obtained. Gives written results in the form of written text supported by tables and figures, if necessary, together with analyses and data interpretation. Both, repetition of details given in other chapters and description of facts evident when analyzing tables or figures presented should be avoided.
Discussion. Includes the integrated interpretation of results, and when corresponds, a contrast between them and previous publications. It is a critical analysis of results according to the objectives and hypothesis, if corresponds. Significance and validity of results should be commented, according to the realms defined for the work and the methods applied. Results should not be repeated in this chapter.
Conclusions. Can be included in an only Conclusions chapter, or integrated in Discussion. If they are presented as a chapter, all the most relevant ideas that directly derive from the work will be precisely and concisely included. They must give an answer to the hypothesis and/or objectives stated in the Introduction. They must be clearly and objectively redacted without including bibliographical references. They may include recommendations for future works.
Acknowledgements. In this section, a brief introduction of persons and institutions contributing to the work either by funding or by any other source must be included.
References. References from all bibliographical quotations mentioned in the text, alphabetically ordered, should be indicated. Precision and veracity of data given in bibliographical references are responsibility of the authors and must correspond to original publications. The maximum number of references will be 25 for articles, notes and opinions; and 40 for revisions. Use modern and relevant literature which must be directly related with your work. At least 2/3 of references must correspond to main stream scientific journals.
- The structure stated before is not compulsory for Opinions and Reviews. In any case, should contain the following sections: Title, Authors, Summary, Key words, Introduction, development work appropriately divided into chapters, Acknowledgments, and References.
Style and Format
In general, the Summary, Methods, and Results from your manuscript should be in past tense; and the Introduction and Discussion, in present tense. When referring to results previously published, use present tense; this helps to make the difference between findings from your research and those from any other. In the text, do not use acronyms or abbreviations; write full names. Exceptions permitted are those of global dominance, such as ADN, pH, CO2 and a few others. Symbols for chemical elements are not permitted in the text. Observe grammatical rules throughout the manuscript, including tables and figures.
The work should be written in letter size paper (279 x 216 mm), margins of 2 cm on each side, one and half lead space line, Times New Roman type, size 12, numerating pages on their bottom right side and correlative line number for all the work, on the left. Separate paragraphs at right after line and indenting eight characters on the left on the first line. It must be presented in electronic files with Word processor or RTF format.
The main title should be in bold and small letter, centred. Authors should not indicate scientific names in it; nevertheless, they will be introduced the first time they are mentioned in the text; starting from the introduction. An abbreviated title holding a maximum of 60 characters and spaces must be included in the right top headline.
Equations should be numerated on the right margin with square brackets "[ ]"; in the text, they will be mentioned according to this numeration.
Measurement units should be circumscribed to the International System (IS). Concerning numeric notation, decimals should be separated by comma (,) and thousands by dots (.). In English texts, decimals are separated by dots, and thousands by commas. Zero should be used at the beginning of numbers inferior to a unit, including probability values (for example, P < 0.001).
The description of results of each statistic test in the text should include the exact value of the associated probability P. For P values lower than 0.001, indicate how P < 0.001. In tables and figures use asterisks to indicate the significance level of the statistic tests: * = P < 0.05; ** = P < 0.01; *** = P < 0.001; ns = not significant.
The scientific name of all biological organisms included in the text must be indicated according to the international respective nomenclature. If a common name is used for a species, the first time it is mentioned in the text, its scientific name should immediately appear between parenthesis and in cursive, for example: coihue (Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst.). Subsequent references can appear bearing the genus name abbreviated, followed by the adjective of the scientific name, for example: N. dombeyi, only if this fact does not produce any confusion with other species mentioned in the manuscript. When beginning a sentence with a species name, write the full genus and do not abbreviate it with its initial letter. Authors of scientific names should not be mentioned, either in the summary or the title.
Alphanumerical data should be included in tables, ordered into rows and columns, written in Times New Roman type, size 12 (minimum size 9), without bold. Only column headlines and general titles are separated with horizontal lines; data columns should be separated by spaces rather than vertical lines. Other forms of data or information presentation, such as graphs, drawings, photographs, and maps are included in figures. Explanatory titles in Spanish and English, consecutively enumerated are included in tables and figures (table 1., table 2.,….; figure 1., figure 2.,…) Figures hold the title on the lower margin, and tables, on the upper margin. Tables and figures must possess such a resolution so as to permit to be reduced without losing legibility. Only black, white, and grey shades are permitted. Nevertheless, colours may be used in the figures only if they are compulsory for a clear understanding. The inclusion of coloured figures will be on the author expenses, being also his responsibility to previously communicate with the editor. The space occupied by them in the work should be inferior to 50 % of the total printing. Tables and their respective titles must be included in the main text file, locating them as close as possible to their first citing in the text. Tables must be in table format (editable, not as images). Figures must be delivered in a separate file, in an editable format. Location of figures in the main text, including their title, must be informed.
In the figures, all titles and legends must be written in Times New Roman type, size from 9 to 12, without bold and respecting grammar and writing norms of the Journal. Small figures must be designed with a maximum width of 8 cm (one column in the Journal) and big figures with a maximum of 16 cm width (two columns in the Journal). Exceptionally, a figure may be 23 cm width (and 14 cm tall as maximum) to be presented in landscape format. Figures must be organized so as to gather common objects in only one figure (e.g. graphs containing the same type of information) and identified by means of a capital letter (A, B, C…), which will be explained in the figure’s title.
Manuscripts in Spanish must include in a separate file the respective English translations of:
- Title of the manuscript.
- Summary: must be equivalent in content to that in Spanish.
- Key words: equivalent to the clue words in Spanish.
- Titles of tables and figures.
If the manuscript is in English, the respective text in Spanish must be included.
Quotations and References
Bibliographic references will be indicated in the text on the surname of the author(s), followed by the publication year. Some examples of the most frequent bibliographic references are:
Bibliographic references from one and two authors:
Santamaría (2010) indicates that the growth .........
..... are influenced by the area mentioned (Santamaría 2010, López and Castro 2011).
Bibliographic references from more than two authors:
Barría et al. (2009) indicates as the most important factor .......
......... among others, the diameter and height (Barría et al . 2009, Morán et al. 2010).
Bibliographic references from the same author, published in the same year:
Rodríguez (2009abd) observes that in every simple unit .......
........ a fact that coincides with previous studies (Rodríguez 2009ab, Morán et al. 2010acd).
References from more than a publication at the same time, they are chronologically ordered:
Cerón (2007), García and Villanueva (2009) and Suárez et al. (2010) when analyzing the edafoclimatic components...
In the References chapter, bibliographic references must include the first surname and initials of the names of all authors, the year of publication, the title, and the complementary information that permits to locate the origin of the document under discussion. Some examples of the most frequent bibliographic references are:
References of articles in periodic journals:
Guddants S. 2008. Replicating sawmill sawing with topsan using C.T. images of a full-length hardwood log. Forest Products Journal 48(1):72-75.
Kogan M, C Alister. 2010. Glyphosate use in forest plantations. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 70(4):652-666. DOI: 10.4067/S0718-583920100004 00017.
Karzulovic JT, MI Dinator, J Morales, V Gaete, A Barrios. 2009. Determination of the diameter of the defective central cylinder on trimmed log radiata pine (Pinus radiata) by means of gamma radiation attenuation. Bosque 26(1):109-122.
References of books as a whole:
Morales EH. 2005. Experimental design through variance analysis and lineal regression model. Santiago, Chile. Andros. 248 p.
CONAF (Corporación Nacional Forestal, CL). 1997. Visitors statistics entries pertaining to protected wild areas in the Tenth Region of Los Lagos. 52 p. (Statistic Report Nº 47).
References to parts or chapters of books:
Gutiérrez B, R Ipinza. 2010. Genetic parameters evaluation in Nothofagus. In Ipinza R, B Gutiérrez, V Emhart eds. Domestication and genetic improvement of raulí and oak. Valdivia, Chile. Exion. p. 371-390.
References to Reports, Thesis, Degree Seminars or Degree Works:
Emhart V. 1996. Design and establishment of a clone seed nursery of Eucalyptus nitens (Deane et Maiden) with production, research and teaching purposes. Forestry Engineer Thesis. Valdivia, Chile. Forestry Sciences Faculty, Universidad Austral de Chile. 79 p.
Aparicio J. 2001. Biomass and yield of Eucalyptus nitens with nutritional alternatives for a sustainable silviculture in clay reddish soil. Science Master Thesis. Valdivia, Chile. Forestry Sciences Faculty, Universidad Austral de Chile. 234 p.
References to Internet Documents:
DeAngelis JD. 2009. European pine shoot moth. Oregon State University Extension (Urban Entomology Notes). Consulted 10 jul. 2009. Available in http://www.ent.orst.edu/urban/home.html
For further information concerning other specific cases related to the bibliographic quotations and references, the following documents may be consulted. Nevertheless, the order and typography of the elements constituting bibliographical quotations and references must obey Bosque policies.
Bibliographic References Redaction:
Biblioteca Conmemorativa Orton (IICA/CATIE). 2011. Normas para citar referencias bibliográficas en artículos científicos. 4 ed. Consultado 13 abr. 2011. Disponible en http://biblioteca.catie.ac.cr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=18&Itemid=50
The Council of Biology Editors (CBE). 1994. Scientific style and format: The CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 6 ed. Cambridge, New York. Cambridge University Press. 704 p.
The instructions can be downloaded by cliking here.